School of ECE, ABES Engineering College
School of CSE, SRM University
Abstract: Vaccination is a long-term process. But as Covid-19 is spreading at a very high rate and we can get saved by this deadly virus by taking a vaccine. Normally it takes 10-15 years for manufacturing to be fully approved by the government. As a concern, vaccines are only approved as emergency cures. Vaccines are always fully tested with multiple layers of clinical trials before making that available for the public, but It's observed that people are avoiding taking vaccines in India. According to the survey, India was the highest contributing and manufacturing country in the world.
In this paper, we highlight vaccines, their uses, manufacturing, and side effects of it. analysis on surveys conducted in India asking their view and concern on the Indian vaccination programme. A mathematical analysis of AEFI (adverse events following immunization) and VAERS (the vaccine adverse event reporting section).
Keywords: Coronavirus, Covid-19, Vaccine, Data Analysis, Survey
For a patient, a vaccine is a source of acquired immunity that is prepared biologically for infectious diseases. It resembles the disease-causing agent. An agent is a dead or alive infectious organism or it can be a pathogen that produces effect when inserted into the body of a patient. After the antigen is identified we work on the making of the vaccine. Sometimes the antigen gets weakened by the time and from that extract, we found the vaccine but in many of the cases, it is not possible. We find various sources from which we can make a vaccine. The covid vaccine is a nucleic acid vaccine that uses the genetic material of the antigen to form a vaccine. It can be RNA or DNA depending upon its features. In this case, it is RNA. So that it provides the instructions to the doctors for making a specific type of protein that will be the cause of the destruction of disease-causing pathogens. In India, the government approved three different vaccines for emergency use which are covishield, sputnik and covaxin. But it's been observed people are not willing to take vaccines. It has been observed that people are not ready to take vaccines as they are more concerned about the side effects of vaccines than the actual disease-causing covid. It can be true that there are chances of having adverse side effects of vaccines but this is very rare. And after all, vaccines are for immunity not antidotes of a poison that can cure us completely. And this is the reason why the government has implemented a partial lockdown so that people can complete the doses of vaccine first so they can make sufficient antibodies to fight with covid antigen.
So, a survey was conducted in India to understand what people think about Covid 19 vaccines, concerns and their side effects. We also analysed the Indian population's trust the most in this global pandemic and it was not a surprise that very few people trust government leaders. As a democratic country, it is very shameful. As everything has side effects it can be minor or major, covid vaccines also have some side effects that are controllable by the time and support of doctors. This paper discusses various types of side effects and their effect on human psychology to get vaccinated. As a concern, it is shameful that on a scale of 50 there are still up to 10 people who don't want to get vaccinated for various reasons. India has vaccinated only 3% of the total population which is 1.38 billion and 9.2% of people have received at least one dose. As a fact, India produces 2.5 million doses per day which is very low.
Are We Ready For Covid – 19 Vaccines? – A General Side Effects Overview. The world was in a race of making vaccines. In addition, the more number of variants has made it so difficult to be built. It was so dangerously taking lives, ruining economic development and the worst was poverty. After all, the wait is over and vaccines have been made. A life-threatening disease that has swallowed 1 million people in the initial stage of 6 months all over the world. As soon as the vaccine got emergency approval India prioritized the health workers and doctors to give the vaccine first. NEGVAC (National Expert Group on Vaccine Administration for COVID-19) restricted the workers to take care of vaccinated people for the first 15 minutes just after the slot. As it is that duration the major chance of getting allergic to the vaccine and could get major side effects.
Immune History and Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine can be blamed on the non-identical match of an antigen. Even when there is a match, the effectiveness can be very low. There can be a lot more uncertainty about the effectiveness of vaccines. Influenza Vaccine also is a good choice because it has the immunization calibre for different age groups. Resolving the uncertainty of vaccines can surely lead to a great improvement in biotechnology.
Analysis of vaccine-adverse event data: Vaccination Has been the most successful healthcare invention which saved millions of people in this world. As a study, the US CDC found more than 500,000 reposts for post-vaccination adverse events. In this single report, there is a huge dataset which deals with different dimensions like variant, patient type and vaccine given. Considering all the reposts filled from 1990 to 2013 it will be a great challenge. Stepping ahead with neighbouring methods and novel utilization of the dataset we will analyze. As a result, we found cross-boarding patterns are very effective in this study.
- Analysis on Indian vaccination program
The demographic picture (fig 1) of Telangana state depicts the level of concern for the vaccine to be taken across gender. This picture highly exhibits how there is a huge difference between the thinking of men and women for the parameter Very concerned. Indians incur a situation of 4000 deaths every single day due to covid and where a small village comes in limelight for their female front-liners who guarded day and night just for ensuring a proper lockdown in the village (called betul in Madhya Pradesh). And in the same nation, there are a huge number of females who are not at all concerned about vaccines as well. concerned about vaccines as well.
fig 1. Concern for vaccine across gendre
India was the leader in terms of the huge production of vaccines at the time. And by the global immunization program, the companies have churned up to 60% of the vaccine in the world. And as shameful as this bar chart represents, on a scale of 50 there are still up to 10 people who don't want to get vaccinated for various reasons (Fig 2). India has vaccinated only 3% of the total population which is 1.38 billion and 9.2% of people have received at least one dose. As a fact, India produces 2.5 million doses per day.
It has been observed that people are not ready to take vaccines as they are more concerned about the side effects of vaccines than the actual disease-causing covid.
Fig 2. Will you take the vaccine?
But, apart from all of this, if there is an influence of people like celebrities, government officials, politicians or WHO authorities they might believe that vaccines are safe and they can take it (fig 3. Less than 5% of the total population can believe in taking
vaccines if any political party says to do so. Here we can see how the government has defamed their political dignity among the population of India.
- Vaccines Development and Side effect
After identifying the bacteria (deadly virus) which causes the infectious disease we tend to research about the vaccine (The cure). Generally, it takes 10-15 years to make a vaccine according to the history of vaccines but in this advanced era, our world's best biotechnical team is arranging this in less than 1 year. Other pathogens which can cause flu are likely to change or mutate so we have to keep an eye on the antigens too. We have a lot of options to make vaccines where live attenuation, subunit, viral vector, Nucleic acid are some basic methods. So, the historic process of making vaccines in 10-15 has the following steps. The first is to do a pre-human trial test. It has 2 types of laboratory stage also called eproratry stage. Here we work at the laboratory level and find a type of antigen that will infect the human body in future. And then we will test this on human animals like monkeys, mice etc. after that we inject the kind of antigen we have studied in these animals to check if their body has released any antibody to fight the virus or not. After that human trials begin and it is divided into 3 phases. If antibodies work perfectly then the vaccines are approved and responses are noted. For approval, the report goes to CDSCO (Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation) and then it is approved as standard approval/ emergency use approval. Phase 4 has a mechanism of VAERS (the vaccine adverse event reporting section), which is an organisation that records all the reposts of people who suffered from post-vaccination adverse effects. The administration is licensed from the United States of America.
The efficiency of vaccines: it is stated that Pfizer has 95%, Moderna 94% and has Oxford 67%. An important term that is introduced is the Placebo effect. Placebo means a harmless substance that is identical to the vaccine in looks only given to the patient to study the physiological effect of the vaccine on the patient's body. In this process, some patients are given the true vaccine and some are given a placebo. After that researcher will compare the improvement of body immune and seriousness of antigen/virus.
% Efficiency = 1- (attack rate with vaccine/ attack rate with placebo)
Side effects of post-vaccination: categorizing in 3 different types, We generally see these kinds of people.
- No effect
- Normal side effect
- AEFI adverse events following immunization
According to the Pfizer company study if a person has No effect can have many reasons some of which are the following.
- Good age (more than 45)
- Due to more number of testosterone
- May have taken Immunosuppressive drugs.
- Naturally acquired immunodeficiency.
A normal side effect is caused when post-vaccination a person's immune functions get triggered and the body gives a response by replicating more antibodies. which causes inflammation which causes small effects like fever and cough.
According to government data, AEFI (28 March 2021) has reported 600 cases after approximately 6 crores of vaccination. Where around 300people were admitted to the hospital. And 180 people died after struggling.
If we calculate :
Deaths% = (180/60000000)*100
= 0.0003 %
which means 3 in 10 lakhs .
Till date, there is a positivity of approximately 40% and cumulatively 60%-70% of chances that a person will be infected by Coronavirus if he/she has not taken the vaccine. And post-vaccine there is a 0.02%-0.04% of chances of having covid. Following is the breakthrough chart for the with/ without vaccine chances of getting the infection.
Case fatality rate: It is a proportion of death to the total number of people who are diagnosed with the infection. The total chance of death is 13,000 in 1 hundred thousand.
Conclusion and future work
After studying multiple work of researchers and analysis on survey data collected, we conclude vaccines are very helpful and life saver in the diseases and every single vaccine comes in market after multiple layers of trial so we must take when our doctor suggests. People have high concerns and trust issues with government processes and that’s the reason they avoid this which we found in our analysis , but it can be solved with the help of education and workshops by doctors. In future we do survey with more population and include other potential features like the highest degree they have, do they feel connected with government and their programs,
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