In an Artificial Intelligence world, Agent-based technology is one of the most vibrant and important areas of R&D, emerging in Information Technology in the industry in recent years. Intelligent Agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes, analyses and responds to an environment appropriate to achieve the expected objective. The IA posses several categories such as Coordination, Integration, Mobility, Believable Agent and Assistance in achieving its expectancy. Agent Program is a tool/process which supports the IA Implementation. Agent program is defined briefly as a mathematical function of an IA which maps all the possible sequences of perceptions in every action. IA can respond either to a resulted coefficients or feedback elements or even to a function or constant which affects eventual actions.
Intelligent Agents are initially originated from Artificial Intelligence and Distributed Programming. These two regions have been combined together, to form Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI), by which the vision of Intelligent Agent emerges. In mid- 1950’s, the idea of an intelligent entity existed which was also known as an Agent, but nothing really happened until the late 70’s. The actual progress in its development began only in early 90’s; coinciding with the breakthrough of the Internet. There is a very close connection across object-orientation and agent-technology. This is only to be expected, since the fields of distributed programming and artificial intelligence are developed on this basis. This agent- orientation grasp the object-orientation a bit extent by giving the agent a desired target with its extant.
- Intelligent Agent
One among the fastest growing areas of artificial intelligence is the agent technology, which is of paramount importance in current research. An Intelligent Agent is considered to be a software entity located in an environment. IA can be
- respond to changes in the environment;
- be proactive in attaining its goals; and also
IA is shown in the figure 1. For the purpose of attaining the goal, an IA learns by itself and makes use of its internal knowledge base. Thus it is seen as natural metaphor for human acts. It has an elevated performance behavior in data distribution and control of self- imposed expertise.Fig. 1: Basic Agent
The core utilization of an IA Model is in the area of documentation, where various IA types will be supported in the system which is in the development stage. IA instances will understand these agents clearly during its execution. Characteristics of an IA play a critical role in the implementation of any IA-based Applications. It may be one-to-one link between roles and agent types. A simple IA-type tree defines an IA model, where leaf nodes of the tree respond to roles whereas other intelligent agent types are referred by other nodes.
- Attributes of Intelligent Agents
The three attributes: agency, intelligence and mobility are used in intelligent agent systems, to measure system properties. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship between agency and intelligence:
Fig. 2: Scope of Intelligent agent
- Agency - The degree and extent to which independence is exhibited by an agent. For example, given that an agent operates in an Internet environment, it must at the least, be able to go on working while the user might not be connected or might not be connected to the Web.
- Intelligence - The ability of a agent to assimilate and adjust to a domain, by means of user requests and available assets to the agent.
Systems above the threshold lines are recognized as intelligent agents as shown in Fig. 2. Those falling under the threshold line, for example expert systems i.e. “systems representing some knowledge they gathered by means of elicitation or knowledge- acquisition into a computer program to perform specific tasks”.
- Intelligent Agent
- Agent function
The agent function which maps a series of observations into action is a mathematical function. The agent function is applied as agent program. The part in which the agent takes an action is called an actuator.Fig. 3: Structure of Agent
- Agent Versus Program
- Size: The size of an agent is typically less than that of a program.
- Motive: The purpose of an agent is limited and pecullar whereas the purpose of programs is multiuse.
- Endurance: Agent’s duration doesn’t depend totally on a user organize and depart it.
- Self-Governing: Agents are autonomous and is not dependent on user's input for functioning.
- Agent Versus Program
- Categories of Agent Based Intelligent Systems
There are five categories in the Intelligent Agent based systems:
- Integration: Integration of information and sharing of knowledge.
- Coordination: Cooperative problem-solving and multi-agent systems.
- Portability: Portable agent/ object solutions
- Assistance: Unique assistance, soft-bots and data mining.
- Believable Agents: life and simulation.
The key goal of integration in any situation is to give components that can facilitate various learning frameworks. It is imperative that the fused data is very much organized, and contains all the data and clarifications important to its cognizance.
Coordination is a special case of interaction in which agents are aware how they depend on each other and attempt to adjust their actions appropriately. Understanding the process of an IA technology is helping people to work more effectively and contributes to better results. The supportive coordination of this distributed-processing is in the interest of various research communities.
Assistance typically acts as representative of a human or an organization endeavoring to accomplish their ultimate goals or intentions.
Believable agent has behavioral characteristics which make it easier to suspend the unbelief that the agent is a true person. It interacts with the player in real time and is sufficiently autonomous to plan its own actions in order to increase credibility.
- Java - Based Agent Technology
- Java - based agent technology includes the tools and support needed to develop multi-agent large - scale systems using the Java platform. Several organizations and vendors are involved in the design of tools and frameworks for the construction of Java technology-based systems. Some of the commonly used technologies are summarized below:
- Aglets – The Aglets are invent to locate mobile agents. One of the first agent technologies built using Java technology are Aglets.
- JADE (Java Agent Development Framework) - Software framework which is entirely designed and coded in the Java language. The purpose of the framework is to make execution of multi- purpose systems easier, by using a middleware which is compliant with the FIPA specifications and using a group of built-in tools e.g. the sniffer agent and the platform management console to help debug and deploy agent - based systems. The JADE framework can be distributed and remotley controlled by using a built-in GUI.
- Bee-gent (Bonding and Encapsulation Enhancement aGent)–an agent - based system development framework. Bee- gent has integrated capabilities to promote communication between applications for software. Agents are used to deliver the messages. Developers can build open distributed systems so that existing application services can be used.
- Zeus – “a toolkit designed to help quickly design, develop and deploy agent - based systems”. Zeus toolkit includes components of the library, construction and visualization tools.
- IBM Agent Building Environment (ABE)-Intelligent agent design and building toolkit developers.
- Java - based agent technology makes it easy to develop commercial agent - based applications on a large scale that can share data with organizational or Internet applications.
- Java Agent Development framework
Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) is a program substructuredevelopedin Javalanguage by TILAB. This includes two segments, The first part is the libraries (Java classes) in which the agent applications and functions are developed. The second part is a run-time environment , which provides some needful assistance for the agents’ execution. Platforms can be executed in a peer-to-peer multi party communications and distrvibuted networks . This system makes use of the both wired and wireless infrastructure. The platform supports cross functional operations for system execution. The layout can be supervised via a remote user interface; moreover, at runtime the platform supports hot exchange and moving users from one system to another.Fig. 4: JADE Architecture
An Intelligent Agent, which surrounds the same purpose, will help us to find out relevant content most efficiently and effectively. The IA based system assist the creator to resolve complicated real world issues, by contibuting idea to make-up the stumbling block and to group-up the result. It is argued that the IA based system utilizes the large number of agent very effectively with the help of agent generation algorithm.
About the Author
Dr. S. Balakrishnan (CSI Membership 2060000034) is a Professor at Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. He has 17 years of experience in teaching, research and administration. He has published over 15 books, 3 Book Chapters, 6 Technical articles in CSI Communications Magazine and over 100 publications in highly cited Journals and Conferences. His professional awards include: Deloitte Innovation Award, Cash Prize ` 10,000/-, from Deloittee for Smart India Hackathon 2018, Patent Published Award, Impactful Author of the Year 2017-18, Best Faculty – Computer Science and Engineering, Teaching Excellence Award, I2OR - Bright Researcher Award, Best Outstanding Faculty Award, Best Teacher Award, Best Research Paper Award, Best Book Publication Award and Best Book Chapter Award, Special Contributor Award and Star Performer Award. His research interests are Artificial Intelligence, Cloud Computing and IoT. He has delivered several guest lectures, seminars and chaired a session for various Conferences. He is serving as a Reviewer and Editorial Board Member of many reputed Journals and acted as Session chair and Technical Program Committee member of National conferences and International Conferences at Vietnam, China, America and Bangkok. He has filed/published Patents on IoT Applications. Dr.Balakrishnan is a life member of ISTE, IAENG, IEAE, IARDO, CSI, UACEE, SDIWC and CSTA.